Water and Wastewater

Water and Wastewater

The U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) released a study in 2002 on the direct costs associated with metallic corrosion in nearly every U.S. industry sector, from infrastructure and transportation to production and manufacturing. Initiated by NACE International and mandated by the U.S. Congress in 1999 as part of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), the study provides current cost estimates and identifies national strategies to minimize the impact of corrosion.

The Cost of Corrosion study shows that the total annual estimated direct cost of corrosion in the U.S. is a staggering $276 billion—approximately 3.1% of the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP). In particular, the water and wastewater sector accounts for approximately $36 billion, or 14%, of the above-mentioned total. Based on the current GDP of $450 billion, the cost of corrosion in the water and wastewater sector is approximately $58.5 billion. The study revealed that, although corrosion management has improved over the past several decades, the U.S. must find more and better ways to encourage, support, and implement optimal corrosion control practices.

The more recent IMPACT (International Measures of Prevention, Application, and Economics of Corrosion Technologies) study released by NACE in 2016 found that worldwide, the cost of corrosion is $2.5 trillion, and that replacing over one million miles (1.6 million km) of corroded water and wastewater pipelines would cost $2.1 trillion. It was reported that 35 to 50% of this cost could have been avoided through proper design, operation, and corrosion prevention.

Both public and private U.S. water and wastewater agencies have infrastructure assets ranging in value from millions to billions of dollars. Assets include dams, aqueducts, tunnels, transmission/collection pipelines, water and wastewater treatment plants, pumping plants, distribution pipelines and storage reservoirs. Many of these facilities are constructed with materials such as concrete, steel, cast iron, ductile iron, stainless steel, brass, copper and other materials subject to corrosion attack.

NACE International can help equip water or wastewater professionals to recognize and identify root causes of corrosion within their systems. By utilizing the proven principals, the professional can begin designing, operating and maintaining their assets with corrosion prevention and mitigation. Training, certification, standards, and publications enable them to make solid economic decisions and improve the sustainability of their asset inventory.

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Books

Corrosion and Its Control: An Introduction to the Subject, Second Edition

This edition of this classic text is based on notes used by the authors for more than a decade in their course, The Corrosion and Protection of Metals.

Corrosion Basics: An Introduction, 3rd Edition

This book provides general coverage of the wide field of corrosion control. It is designed to help readers being initiated into corrosion work and presents each corrosion process or control procedure in the most basic terms.

Corrosion Behaviour and Protection of Copper and Aluminum Alloys in Seawater (EFC 50)

Copper and aluminum alloys are widely used in marine engineering in areas such as pipelines, storage tanks, ships' hulls, and cladding for offshore structures.

CUI Mechanism and Prevention

CUI(Corrosion Under Insulation) is worldwide problem. CUI on carbon steel occurs with water and oxygen and is accelerated by iron rust halogen ion and the conductivity. That mechanism is analyzed more quantitatively to understand the degree of corrosion influence. By using this mechanism the author applied to the actual plants to find it is correct.But some irregular corrosion occurred and is considered why it occurs by means of the investigation of the corrosion samples.

Fundamentals of Designing for Corrosion Control: A Corrosion Aid for the Designer

This book examines factors weighed in the design phase of a project for preventing equipment repair or replacement due to corrosion.

Solution to Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) with Three Layered CUI Control and CUI Warning Systems

CUI is the most expensive problem in the corrosion history due to their highly corrosive conditions and the limited visual access by thermal jackets. In general CUI is caused by water leakages from the thermal jackets. Visual inspections of steel pipes and tanks by removing the thermal jackets are most reliable way to find CUI locations at present.

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