• NACE equips society to protect people, assets and
    the environment from the adverse effects of corrosion.

Cathodic Protection Industry

Corrosion and cathodic protection (CP) are electrochemical phenomena. Understanding corrosion and CP requires a basic knowledge of chemistry and electrochemistry. Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry dealing with chemical changes that accompany the passage of an electric current, or a process in which a chemical reaction produces an electric current.

Examples of structures where cathodic protection is employed include underground tanks and pipelines; aboveground storage tanks; water tank interiors; ship hulls; ballast tanks; docks; sheet piling; land and water foundation piles; bridge substructures; tube sheets; oil heater treaters; and reinforcing steel in concrete.

NACE International is committed to providing CP solutions that reduce costs, maximize asset availability, keep personnel safe, and preserve the environment. Our CP solutions include CP education and certification programs, hundreds of books, ebooks, and CP-focused publications, as well as CP standards that drive the industry. Our resources are designed to serve a wide range of CP industry areas, including:


Cathodic Protection Basics

Cathodic Protections Basics

Corrosion is a naturally occurring phenomenon. Cathodic Protection (CP) is a technique used to control the corrosion of a metal surface by making it the cathode of an electrochemical cell. CP can be accomplished by sending a current into the structure from an external electrode and polarizing the metallic surface in an electronegative direction. This provides protection to the surface and extends the life of the asset.

CP systems protect a wide range of metal-based structures, including onshore/offshore pipelines, storage tanks, pier piles, ship and boat hulls, offshore oil platforms, and metal reinforcement components in concrete structures. Another CP technique to mitigate corrosion involves placing a zinc coating on galvanized steel components.

Courses

Basic Corrosion

The Basic Corrosion Course focuses on corrosion and the potential problems caused by corrosion.

CP-1 Cathodic Protection Tester

The CP 1 - Cathodic Protection Tester course provides both theoretical knowledge and practical techniques for testing and evaluating data to determine the effectiveness of both galvanic and impressed current CP systems and to gather design data.

Cathodic Protection Fundamentals: Math & Electricity e-Course

This course provides a thorough review of basic math, chemistry, and electrical fundamentals through step-by-step examples, self-study practice problems, and downloadable job-aids.

Standards

NACE Publication 1E100 (2012), “Engineering Symbols Related to Cathodic Protection”

Books

Peabody's Control of Pipeline Corrosion, Second Edition

For over 30 years Control of Pipeline Corrosion, written by A.W. Peabody, has been the most trusted resource in the field of pipeline corrosion. Now completely revised and updated, the second edition of this classic reference continues the tradition of excellence by providing the most thorough and authoritative coverage of the prevention and control of pipeline corrosion.

Corrosion and Its Control: An Introduction to the Subject, Second Edition

This edition of this classic text is based on notes used by the authors for more than a decade in their course, The Corrosion and Protection of Metals. The authors emphasize the engineering aspects of corrosion and its control in ways that will be helpful to the practicing engineer. Topics covered include corrosion economics, detecting and monitoring corrosion, regulations, specifications, safety, and the selection and use of materials, with special emphasis on stainless steels.

Handbook of Cathodic Corrosion Protection: Theory and Practice of Electrochemical Protection Processes, Third Edition

A translation from the original German, this comprehensive handbook covers all aspects of cathodic protection in terms of both practice and theory. The study of corrosion reactions and the methods used to prevent metallic corrosion are economically significant in many industrial applications, including buried pipelines, storage tanks, telecommunications, power, gas-pressurized cables, ships, and harbor installations.

Corrosion for Everybody

Corrosion is a global problem not universally recognized by many people outside of the corrosion industry. Yet many people, far from the corrosion field, come across it because of their professional duty. Lawyers, historians, doctors, architects, philosophers, artists, and archeologists, to name a few, may want or need to understand the principles of corrosion.

1001 Solved Engineering Fundamentals Problems, Third Edition

This is the most complete collection of typical E.I.T. exam problems ever published, with no duplication of the problems presented in the Engineer-In-Training Reference Manual. A chapter is devoted to each exam subject, and similar problems are grouped together for maximum reinforcement of key concepts. Each problem is immediately followed by an explanation and its worked-out solution. 2005 by Professional Publications, 6” x 9”, softbound, 743 pages.

Corrosion Basics - An Introduction, 2nd Edition (e-Book)

This second edition is an extensive update to the first and represents NACE’s all-time best-selling book. The book presents basic concepts to understand how corrosion problems occur and how they can be prevented or controlled with modern tools. It discusses environments, materials and how they corrode, methods of corrosion control, and corrosion testing and monitoring.

Magazines/Newsletters

Materials Performance
StayCurrent
Cost of Corrosion Study

Technical Committees

STG 05 - Cathodic/Anodic Protection
STG 30 - Oil and Gas Production—Cathodic Protection
STG 35 - Pipelines, Tanks, and Well Casings

Reports

Design of Galvanic Anode Cathodic Protection Systems for Offshore Structures

Related Articles

Materials Performance - Polarization
Materials Performance - Cathodic and Anodic Protection

Pipeline Monitoring

CPPipeline

Onshore pipelines are used all over the world for transporting oil or other fuels, or for transporting water, from one location to another. Because of their importance, many onshore pipelines are protected against corrosion with a CP system. The most obvious reason to monitor pipeline cathodic protection is to make sure the system is functioning correctly and providing adequate corrosion protection. When a structure corrodes, leaks may occur, and the product may be lost. There is also concern over public safety and environmental damage.

For this reason, regulations have been enacted in many industries and countries to make sure structures containing hazardous materials are adequately protected to reduce the risk to the public and environment. Many of these regulatory industries have adopted standards set forth by NACE and International Standards Organization (ISO) regarding corrosion control, and some have gone a step further by specifying specific measurements and time intervals at which monitoring measurements must be taken.

Courses

CP2 - Cathodic Protection Technician

The CP 2—Cathodic Protection Technician course provides intermediate-level training in both theoretical knowledge and practical techniques for testing and evaluating data to determine the effectiveness of both galvanic and impressed current CP systems and to gather design data.

CP3 - Cathodic Protection Technologist

The CP 3—Cathodic Protection Technologist Course builds on the technology presented in the CP2 course with a strong focus on interpretation of CP Data, trouble shooting and migration of problems that arise in both galvanic and impressed current systems, including design calculations for these systems.

Cathodic Protection Virtual Training Simulator

This 12 station virtual training program allows you to refresh your CP skills, keep up with current practical techniques and prepare for your CP classes and exams by working through step-by-step, real-life testing scenarios that you could encounter in a live CP environment.

Standards

Books

Cathodic Protection Survey Procedures, 3rd Edition

This book was written as a helpful instruction for Cathodic Protection Testers, Technicians and Technologists and others who conduct tests on cathodic protection (CP) systems for on-shore structures.


Technical Committees

STG 35 - Pipelines, Tanks, and Well Casings
TEG 363X - Close-Interval Surveys and CP Surveys
TEG 292X - Direct Assessment Methodology Application

Conference Proceedings

Pipeline Monitoring Cathodic Protection Related Conference Proceedings

Related Articles

Materials Performance - Close Interval Potential Surveys
Materials Performance - Corrosion Surveys

Design & Installation of Cathodic Protection Systems

BubbaSys

Cathodic protection systems are designed to control the corrosion of a metal surface. While localized damaged surfaces can be patched, ongoing degradation may weaken the integrity of the overall infrastructure. When designed correctly, CP systems can continuously protect infrastructure against corrosion, and techniques such as detailed equipment schematics, system specifications and designs, and field surveys are important when designing a CP system that will provide adequate corrosion protection.

 

Courses

CP3 - Cathodic Protection Technologist

The CP 3—Cathodic Protection Technologist Course builds on the technology presented in the CP2 course with a strong focus on interpretation of CP Data, trouble shooting and migration of problems that arise in both galvanic and impressed current systems, including design calculations for these systems.

Standards

SP0572-2007 (formerly RP0572), Design, Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Impressed Current Deep Anode Beds

Books

Fundamentals of Designing for Corrosion Control: A Corrosion Aid for the Designer, Corrosion Management Guide

This book examines factors weighed in the design phase of a project for preventing equipment repair or replacement due to corrosion. Written for industrial plant designers and corrosion or materials engineers, it covers materials selection; testing for quality control; and corrosion rate determinations, classifications, and allowances.

Deep Anode Systems: Design, Installation, and Operation

This manual provides the design engineer with a single-source guide for designing, installing, and operating deep anode systems. The book also elaborates on how making the right engineering judgment decision relates directly to the successful design of your system.

Technical Committees

STG 35 - Pipelines, Tanks, and Well Casings

Related Articles

Materials Performance: Corrosion Basics: ICCP for Atmospherically Exposed Reinforced Concrete Structures
Materials Performance: Special Cathodic Protection Requirements for Specific Pipeline Applications

Coatings and Cathodic Protection

Coatings and CP

Coatings play an important role in CP design. Cathodic protection of uncoated structures can be implemented, but CP of an uncoated structure is usually not cost effective. Coatings alone are not able to prevent corrosion of the metal underneath because they have a finite life, eventually allowing oxygen, water, and chemicals to reach the substrate. Typically coating and CP are used simultaneously, as together, they provide the best technical and economic protection.

Coating inspection is also crucial because it is often desired to install CP to a structure with its coating in the best condition possible. This will ensure the cathodic protection system performs as designed.

Courses

Cathodic Protection Interference

The Cathodic Protection Interference course focuses on AC, DC, and telluric interference. The course provides in-depth coverage of both concepts and practical application of identifying interference and interference mitigation techniques. Students will learn to identify the causes and effects of interference, conduct tests to determine if an interference condition exists, perform calculations required to predict AC interference.

Standards

Books

Corrosion and Coatings: An Introduction to Corrosion for Coatings Personnel

This book examines the various mechanisms and forms of corrosion, the prevention and control of corrosion through the use of protective coatings, cathodic protection, and corrosion control by design. The economics of corrosion control and the importance of programmed corrosion control are stressed. The book also covers an easy-to-use method of economic analysis that may be used to evaluate corrosion-related engineering alternatives.

Coatings and Linings CICS-Coating Systems Used in Conjunction with Cathodic Protection

CICS are compilations of papers and articles from NACE topical symposia and conferences, Materials Performance magazine, Corrosion, book proceedings, and technical committee reports.

Pipeline Coatings

This book provides the reader with a history of generic pipeline coating types, technical information about testing, application and use. There is very practical information about selection and evaluation methods for each type of coating system to help those who design pipeline systems. There is also discussion of how coatings work with cathodic protection, cathodic protection shielding by coatings and other related issues with the various coating systems related to CP.

Technical Committees

STG 01 - Reinforced Concrete
STG 02 - Coatings and Linings, Protective: Atmospheric
STG 03 - Coatings and Linings, Protective: Immersion and Buried Service
STG 35 - Pipelines, Tanks, and Well Casings

Related Articles

Materials Performance: Effects of Coating on Corrosion and Cathodic Protection
Materials Performance: Corrosion Basics: ICCP for Atmospherically Exposed Reinforced Concrete Structures
Materials Performance: Corrosion Basics: Locating Pipeline Coating Defects with a Pearson Survey

Interference

Interfer

Interference is any electrical disturbance on a metallic structure caused by a stray current. Stray current is defined as current flowing on a structure that is not part of the intended electrical circuit. Stray current can be produced by any system conducting an electric current, such as electrified train tracks of overhead power lines that has two or more points of contact with an electrolyte.

Cathodic protection can be designed to mitigate stray current problems. The advantage of CP is that it avoids the use of bonds and the installation and maintenance problems that may accompany them.

Courses

Coatings in Conjunction with Cathodic Protection

The Coatings in Conjunction with Cathodic Protection (CCCP) course focuses on the control of metallic corrosion by protective coatings and cathodic protection, with coatings as the primary method of control supplemented by cathodic protection. The course will cover the selection, specification, application, testing, and inspection of coatings when used with CP. CCCP provides students with the skills and knowledge to implement and monitor a corrosion control program that utilizes both methods.

Standards

NACE Publication 10B189 (2014), "Direct Current Operated Rail Transit Stray Current Mitigation"

Technical Committees

TEG 024X - DC and Transit Stray Current Problems
TEG 022X - Corrosion Control Coordinating Committee
STG 35 - Pipelines, Tanks, and Well Casings

Related Articles

Materials Performance - Corrosion Basics: Stray Current Effects

Underground and Above Ground Storage Tanks

Tanks

Corrosion from leaking storage tanks, whether above or below ground, can pollute the environment, threaten public health, and lead to billions of dollars in direct and indirect costs. Fortunately, corrosion prevention technology exists which can protect storage tanks and keep them structurally sound for years to come. Generally, if the steel surface of a storage tank system is in direct contact with an earthen material (soil, gravel, sand, etc), it must be protected from corrosion by a CP system.

Government and the public understand the extent to which leaking tanks can damage the environment and threaten public health. In order to prevent environmental contamination, U.S. federal regulations require those who own or operate underground tanks and the connected piping to have spill, overfill, and corrosion protection mechanisms in place, and many U.S. states have additional tank protection requirements. The owners/operators of tanks who fail to comply with these regulations can be subject to both civil and criminal penalties.

Courses

CP3 - Cathodic Protection Technologist

The CP 3—Cathodic Protection Technologist Course builds on the technology presented in the CP2 course with a strong focus on interpretation of CP Data, trouble shooting and migration of problems that arise in both galvanic and impressed current systems, including design calculations for these systems.

CP4 - Cathodic Protection Specialist

The CP 4—Cathodic Protection Specialist Course focuses on the principles and procedures for CP design on a variety of structures for both galvanic and impressed current systems. The course discusses theoretical design concepts, considerations that influence the design (environment, structure type/materials of construction, coatings), design factors, and calculations (including attenuation).

Standards

Technical Committees

TEG 132X - Corrosion Management of Aboveground Storage Tanks
STG 35 - Pipelines, Tanks, and Well Casings

Related Articles

Materials Performance Corrosion Basics: Tank and Containment Linings


Cathodic Protection Management and Training

Train

Corrosion prevention planning is the most efficient method for effectively addressing and reducing the impact of corrosion at every stage of a product or facility’s lifecycle. Important considerations for CP management are material selection and design to minimize corrosion; and items that should be addressed in CPC planning which affect CPC in design, fabrication and construction, operation and use, and maintenance and sustainability.

 

Courses

CP4 - Cathodic Protection Specialist

The CP 4—Cathodic Protection Specialist Course focuses on the principles and procedures for CP design on a variety of structures for both galvanic and impressed current systems. The course discusses theoretical design concepts, considerations that influence the design (environment, structure type/materials of construction, coatings), design factors, and calculations (including attenuation).

Corrosion Prevention and Control Management e-Course

CPC planning is the most efficient method for effectively addressing and reducing the impact of corrosion at every stage of a product or facility’s lifecycle.


Books

An Introduction to Corrosion Management in the Industry

This book is the first ever ‘real’ or ‘true’ corrosion management reference book published today for the non-hydrocarbon industries. It is an ideal, comprehensive, practical and yet easy-to-understand set of new definitions, guidelines and suggestions with the main objective being to facilitate the appreciation of the corrosion management concept and the implementation of its processes for and within any non-hydrocarbon industrial sector where corrosion is a major integrity threat.

Guide to Improving Pipeline Safety by Corrosion Management

The primary goal of this guide is to provide pipeline industry managers and nontechnical personnel with an understanding of the basic issue and requirements for managing corrosion threats to onshore transmission pipelines.

Oil and Gas Pipelines: Integrity and Safety Handbook

A comprehensive and detailed reference guide on the integrity and safety of oil and gas pipelines, both onshore and offshore.

Technical Committees

STG 08 - Corrosion Management
STG 35 - Pipelines, Tanks, and Well Casings

Conference Proceedings

C2017-9767, "Risk Based Approach to Integrated Asset Corrosion Management in the Oil and Gas Industry"
C2017-9282, "Understanding the Total Cost of a Corrosion Issue in the Oil and Gas Industry"
C2017-9144, "Assessing and Sharing Success: Comparing Program-wide Corrosion Engineering Service Benefits"

Offshore Pipelines and Structure

Offshore

Many miles of offshore pipelines worldwide are reaching, or have exceeded, the original design life of their cathodic protection systems. CP is routinely used to protect equipment operating in aggressive environments, such as buried pipeline systems and offshore platforms.

In aqueous environments, various chemicals may be introduced to the water or process stream to reduce its corrosivity to the exposed metal. In offshore structures, galvanic CP systems with anodes made of such metals as aluminum, magnesium, and zinc may be used to protect underwater components, and extend the life of offshore pipelines.

Courses

CP2 Cathodic Protection Technician - Maritime

The CP 2—Cathodic Protection Technician—Maritime Course presents cathodic protection technology with specific shipboard cathodic protection information. Developed for NAVSEA (part of the U.S. Navy), this intensive course presents both theoretical knowledge and practical techniques for testing and evaluating data to deter¬mine the effectiveness of both galvanic and impressed current CP systems pertaining to shipboard cathodic protection.

Standards and Reports

Books

Marine Corrosion in Tropical Environments

This book details the latest research on atmospheric corrosion, seawater corrosion, deterioration of concrete, and underground corrosion issues pertaining to tropical environments. With 21 peer-reviewed papers, topics include: mechanisms of corrosion processes; performance of various remedial measures to prevent corrosion damage to steel in concrete; proposal for revision of the ISO atmospheric corrosivity classification; new approach to cathodic protection of rebar and concrete; evaluation of stainless steel for rebar in concrete as a long-term solution; protection of underground structures in tropical marine environments; and difficulties of coating stainless steels for use in seawater.

Corrosion Behaviour and Protection of Copper and Aluminum Alloys in Seawater (EFC 50)

Copper and aluminum alloys are widely used in marine engineering in areas such as pipelines, storage tanks, ships' hulls, and cladding for offshore structures. Written by an international panel under expert editorial direction, Corrosion Behaviour and Protection of Copper and Aluminium Alloys in Seawater reviews key factors affecting the corrosion and service life of copper and aluminum alloys in the marine environment.

Technical Committees

STG 30 - Oil and Gas Production—Cathodic Protection
STG 35 - Pipelines, Tanks, and Well Casings

Related Articles

Materials Performance: Standards Address Cathodic Protection for External Corrosion Control of Submarine Pipelines
Materials Performance: Corrosion Basics: Protecting Fixed Structures in Seawater